Weekly Papers on Quantum Foundations (4)

Acuña, Pablo (2017) Inertial Trajectories in de Broglie-Bohm Theory: an unexpected problem. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 30. pp. 201-230.
Romero, Gustavo E. (2014) PHILOSOPHICAL ISSUES ABOUT BLACK HOLES. Advances in Black Holes Research. pp. 27-58. ISSN 978-1-63463-168-6

Authors: Jungjai LeeHyun Seok Yang

We suggest that dark energy and dark matter may be a cosmic ouroboros of quantum gravity due to the coherent vacuum structure of spacetime. We apply the emergent gravity to a large $N$ matrix model by considering the vacuum in the noncommutative (NC) Coulomb branch satisfying the Heisenberg algebra. We observe that UV fluctuations in the NC Coulomb branch are always paired with IR fluctuations and these UV/IR fluctuations can be extended to macroscopic scales. We show that space-like fluctuations give rise to the repulsive gravitational force while time-like fluctuations generate the attractive gravitational force. When considering the fact that the fluctuations are random in nature and we are living in the (3+1)-dimensional spacetime, the ratio of the repulsive and attractive components will end in $\frac{3}{4}: \frac{1}{4}=75:25$ and this ratio curiously coincides with the dark composition of our current Universe. If one includes ordinary matters which act as the attractive force, the emergent gravity may explain the dark sector of our Universe more precisely.

Authors: Sean M. CarrollAshmeet Singh

To the best of our current understanding, quantum mechanics is part of the most fundamental picture of the universe. It is natural to ask how pure and minimal this fundamental quantum description can be. The simplest quantum ontology is that of the Everett or Many-Worlds interpretation, based on a vector in Hilbert space and a Hamiltonian. Typically one also relies on some classical structure, such as space and local configuration variables within it, which then gets promoted to an algebra of preferred observables. We argue that even such an algebra is unnecessary, and the most basic description of the world is given by the spectrum of the Hamiltonian (a list of energy eigenvalues) and the components of some particular vector in Hilbert space. Everything else – including space and fields propagating on it – is emergent from these minimal elements.

Authors: Andrew D. BondDaniel F. Litim

All known examples of 4d quantum field theories with asymptotic freedom or asymptotic safety at weak coupling involve non-abelian gauge interactions. We demonstrate that this is not a coincidence: no weakly coupled fixed points, ultraviolet or otherwise, can be reliably generated in theories lacking gauge interactions. Implications for conformal field theory and phase transitions are indicated.

Authors: Robert AlickiRonnie Kosloff

Quantum Thermodynamics is a continuous dialogue between two independent theories: Thermodynamics and Quantum Mechanics. Whenever the two theories addressed the same phenomena new insight has emerged. We follow the dialogue from equilibrium Quantum Thermodynamics and the notion of entropy and entropy inequalities which are the base of the II-law. Dynamical considerations lead to non-equilibrium thermodynamics of quantum Open Systems. The central part played by completely positive maps is discussed leading to the Gorini-Kossakowski-Lindblad-Sudarshan GKLS equation. We address the connection to thermodynamics through the system-bath weak-coupling-limit WCL leading to dynamical versions of the I-law. The dialogue has developed through the analysis of quantum engines and refrigerators. Reciprocating and continuous engines are discussed. The autonomous quantum absorption refrigerator is employed to illustrate the III-law. Finally, we describe some open questions and perspectives.

To truly understand data, we need to rethink what we mean by “measurement”

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

      

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Author(s): Flavien Hirsch, Marco Túlio Quintino, and Nicolas Brunner

We discuss the connection between the incompatibility of quantum measurements, as captured by the notion of joint measurability, and the violation of Bell inequalities. Specifically, we explicitly present a given set of non-jointly-measurable positive-operator-value measures (POVMs) MA with the foll…
[Phys. Rev. A 97, 012129] Published Thu Jan 25, 2018

Authors: Daniel KabatGilad Lifschytz

Perturbative bulk reconstruction in AdS/CFT starts by representing a free bulk field $\phi^{(0)}$ as a smeared operator in the CFT. A series of $1/N$ corrections must be added to $\phi^{(0)}$ to represent an interacting bulk field $\phi$. These corrections have been determined in the literature from several points of view. Here we develop a new perspective. We show that correlation functions involving $\phi^{(0)}$ suffer from ambiguities due to analytic continuation. As a result $\phi^{(0)}$ fails to be a well-defined linear operator in the CFT. This means bulk reconstruction can be understood as a procedure for building up well-defined operators in the CFT which singles out the interacting field $\phi$. We further propose that the difficulty with defining $\phi^{(0)}$ as a linear operator can be re-interpreted as a breakdown of associativity. Presumably $\phi^{(0)}$ can only be corrected to become an associative operator in perturbation theory. This suggests that quantum mechanics in the bulk is only valid in perturbation theory around a semiclassical bulk geometry.

Authors: Stephen L. Adler

We calculate the rate of heating through phonon excitation implied by the noise postulated in mass-proportional-coupled collapse models, for a general noise power spectrum. For white noise with reduction rate $\lambda$, the phonon heating rate reduces to the standard formula, but for non-white noise with power spectrum $\lambda(\omega)$, the rate $\lambda$ is replaced by $\lambda_{\rm eff}=\frac{2}{3 \pi^{3/2}} \int d^3w e^{-\vec w^2} \vec w^2 \lambda(\omega_L(\vec w/r_c))$, with $\omega_L(\vec q)$ the longitudinal acoustic phonon frequency as a function of wave number $\vec q$, and with $r_C$ the noise correlation length. Hence if the noise power spectrum is cut off below $\omega_L(|\vec q| \sim r_c^{-1})$, the heating rate is sharply reduced.

Author(s): V. S. Gomes and R. M. Angelo

Based on a recently proposed model of physical reality and an underlying criterion of nonlocality for contexts [A. L. O. Bilobran and R. M. Angelo, Europhys. Lett. 112, 40005 (2015)], we introduce a quantifier of realism-based nonlocality for bipartite quantum states, a concept that is profoundly di…
[Phys. Rev. A 97, 012123] Published Wed Jan 24, 2018

Publication date: Available online 20 January 2018
Source:Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics
Author(s): Carina E.A. Prunkl, Christopher G. Timpson
Recently, Cabello et al. (2016) claim to have proven the existence of an empirically verifiable difference between two broad classes of quantum interpretations. On the basis of three seemingly uncontentious assumptions, (i) the possibility of randomly selected measurements, (ii) the finiteness of a quantum system’s memory, and (iii) the validity of Landauer’s principle, and further, by applying computational mechanics to quantum processes, the authors arrive at the conclusion that some quantum interpretations (including central realist interpretations) are associated with an excess heat cost and are thereby untenable—or at least—that they can be distinguished empirically from their competitors by measuring the heat produced. Here, we provide an explicit counterexample to this claim and demonstrate that their surprising result can be traced back to a lack of distinction between system and external agent. By drawing the distinction carefully, we show that the resulting heat cost is fully accounted for in the external agent, thereby restoring the tenability of the quantum interpretations in question.

Acuña, Pablo (2016) Minkowski Spacetime and Lorentz Invariance: the cart and the horse or two sides of a single coin. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 55. pp. 1-12. ISSN 1355-2198

Author(s): Hyukjoon Kwon, Chae-Yeun Park, Kok Chuan Tan, Daekun Ahn, and Hyunseok Jeong

We investigate a measure of quantum coherence and its extension to quantify quantum macroscopicity. The coherence measure can also quantify the asymmetry of a quantum state with respect to a given group transformation. We then show that a weighted sum of asymmetry in each mode can be applied as a me…
[Phys. Rev. A 97, 012326] Published Tue Jan 23, 2018

Abstract

I present an argument against a relational theory of spacetime that regards spacetime as a ‘structural quality of the field’. The argument takes the form of a trilemma. To make the argument, I focus on relativistic worlds in which there exist just two fields, an electromagnetic field and a gravitational field. Then there are three options: either spacetime is a structural quality of each field separately, both fields together, or one field but not the other. I argue that the first option founders on a problem of geometric coordination and that the second and third options collapse into substantivalism. In particular, on the third option it becomes clear that the relationalist’s path to Leibniz equivalence is no simpler or more straightforward than the substantivalist’s.

Halvorson, Hans (2018) To be a realist about quantum theory. [Preprint]

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