Weekly Papers on Quantum Foundations (29)

Abstract

We argue that causal decision theory (CDT) is no worse off than evidential decision theory (EDT) in handling entanglement, regardless of one’s preferred interpretation of quantum mechanics. In recent works, Ahmed (Evidence, decision, and causality, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2014) and Ahmed and Caulton (Synthese, 191(18): 4315–4352, 2014) have claimed the opposite; we argue that they are mistaken. Bell-type experiments are not instances of Newcomb problems, so CDT and EDT do not diverge in their recommendations. We highlight the fact that a Causal Decision Theorist should take all lawlike correlations into account, including potentially acausal entanglement correlations. This paper also provides a brief introduction to CDT with a motivating “small” Newcomb problem. The main point of our argument is that quantum theory does not provide grounds for favouring EDT over CDT.

Authors: Chia-Yi JuAdam MiranowiczGuang-Yin ChenFranco Nori

Recently, apparent non-physical implications of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (NHQM) have been discussed in the literature. In particular, the apparent violation of the non-signaling theorem, discrimination of non-orthogonal states, and the increase of quantum entanglement by local operations were reported and, therefore, NHQM was not considered as a fundamental theory. Here we show that these and other no-go principles (including the no-cloning and no-deleting theorems) of conventional quantum mechanics still hold in finite-dimensional non-Hermitian quantum systems, including parity-time symmetric (PT-symmetric) and pseudo-Hermitian cases, if its formalism is properly applied. We have developed a modified formulation of NHQM based on the geometry of Hilbert spaces which is consistent with the conventional quantum mechanics for Hermitian systems. Using this formulation the validity of these principles can be shown in a simple and uniform approach.

Authors: Luís C. B. CrispinoDaniel Kennefick

Einsteins general theory of relativity is one of the most important accomplishments in the history of science. Its experimental verification a century ago is therefore an essential milestone that is worth celebrating in full. We reassess the importance of one of the two expeditions that made these measurements possible, a story that involves a sense of adventure and scientific ingenuity in equal measure.

Authors: Michael Esfeld

The paper retraces the development from the measurement problem to the primitive ontology programme. It assesses the contribution of the GRW theory to this programme and discusses the pros and cons of the GRWm matter density ontology and the GRWf flash ontology in comparison to the Bohmian particle ontology. It thereby pursues the evaluation of the proposals for a primitive ontology of quantum physics.

Authors: J. Brian Pitts

Reflective equilibrium between physics and philosophy, and between GR and particle physics, is fruitful and rational. I consider the virtues of simplicity, conservatism, and conceptual coherence, along with perturbative expansions. There are too many theories to consider. Simplicity supplies initial guidance, after which evidence increasingly dominates. One should start with scalar gravity; evidence required spin 2. Good beliefs are scarce, so don’t change without reason. But does conservatism prevent conceptual innovation? No: considering all serious possibilities (Feynman, Weinberg, etc.) could lead to Einstein’s equations. (The rehabilitation of massive gravity shows that ‘progress’ isn’t unidirectional.) GR is surprisingly intelligible. Energy localization makes sense if one believes Noether mathematics: an infinity of symmetries shouldn’t produce just one energy. Hamiltonian change results from Lagrangian-equivalence. Causality poses conceptual questions. For GR, what are canonical ‘equal-time’ commutators? For massive spin 2, background causality exists but is violated. Both might be cured by engineering a background null cone respected by a gauge groupoid. Perturbative expansions can enlighten. They diagnose Einstein’s 1917 ‘mass’-Lambda analogy. Ogievetsky-Polubarinov (1965) invented an infinity of massive spin 2 gravities — including ghost-free de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (2010) theories! — perturbatively, and achieved the impossible (c.f. Weyl, Cartan): spinors in coordinates.

上午9:09 | physics.hist-ph updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Christian Wuthrich

Most approaches to quantum gravity suggest that relativistic spacetime is not fundamental, but instead emerges from some non-spatiotemporal structure. This paper investigates the implications of this suggestion for the possibility of time travel in the sense of the existence of closed timelike curves in some relativistic spacetimes. In short, will quantum gravity reverse or strengthen general relativity’s verdict that time travel is possible?

Authors: Daniel Parrochia

One usually refers the concept of Feynman path integral to the work of Norbert Wiener on Brownian motion in the early 1920s. This view is not false and we show in this article that Wiener used the first path integral of the history of physics to describe the Brownian motion. That said, Wiener, as he pointed out, was inspired by the work of some French mathematicians, particularly Gateaux and Levy. Moreover, although Richard Feynman has independently found this notion, we show that in the course of the 1930s, while searching a kind of geometrization of quantum mechanics, another French mathematician, Adolphe Buhl, noticed by the philosopher Gaston Bachelard, had himself been close to forge such a notion. This reminder does not detract from the remarkable discovery of Feynman, which must undeniably be attributed to him. We also show, however, that the difficulties of this notion had to wait many years before being resolved, and it was only recently that the path integral could be rigorously established from a mathematical point of view.

Authors: Daniel Parrochia

We focus here on the work of the italian physicist Ettore Majorana, and more particularly on his 1937 article on the symmetrical theory of the electron and the positron, probably one of the most important theory for contemporary thought. We recall the context of this article (Dirac relativistic electron wave equation) and analyze how Majorana deduces his own equation from a very general variational principle. After having rewritten Majorana equation in a more contemporary language, we study its implications in condensed matter physics and their possible applications in quantum computing. Finally, we describe some of the consequences of Majorana approach to philosophy.

上午9:09 | ScienceDirect Publication: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsScienceDirect RSShttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-science-part-b-studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-modern-physicsRSS for NodeWed, 24 Jul 2019 09:46:42 GMTCopyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedImprints of the underlying structure of physical theoriesPublication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsAuthor(s): Jorge ManeroAbstractIn the context of scientific realism, this paper intends to provide a formal and accurate description of the structural-based ontology posited by classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and special relativity, which is preserved across the empirical domains of these theories and explain their successful predictions. Along the lines of ontic structural realism, such a description is undertaken by

Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019

Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics

Author(s): Noel Swanson

Abstract

The CPT theorem states that any causal, Lorentz-invariant, thermodynamically well-behaved quantum field theory must also be invariant under a reflection symmetry that reverses the direction of time (T), flips spatial parity (P), and conjugates charge (C). Although its physical basis remains obscure, CPT symmetry appears to be necessary in order to unify quantum mechanics with relativity. This paper attempts to decipher the physical reasoning behind proofs of the CPT theorem in algebraic quantum field theory. Ultimately, CPT symmetry is linked to a reversal of the C*-algebraic Lie product that encodes the generating relationship between observables and symmetries. In any physically reasonable relativistic quantum field theory, it is always possible to systematically flip this generating relationship while preserving the dynamics, spectra, and localization properties of physical systems. Rather than the product of three separate reflections, CPT symmetry is revealed to be a single global reflection of the theory’s state space.

上午9:09 | ScienceDirect Publication: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsScienceDirect RSShttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-science-part-b-studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-modern-physicsRSS for NodeWed, 24 Jul 2019 09:46:42 GMTCopyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedImprints of the underlying structure of physical theoriesPublication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsAuthor(s): Jorge ManeroAbstractIn the context of scientific realism, this paper intends to provide a formal and accurate description of the structural-based ontology posited by classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and special relativity, which is preserved across the empirical domains of these theories and explain their successful predictions. Along the lines of ontic structural realism, such a description is undertaken by

Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019

Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics

Author(s): Meir Hemmo, Orly Shenker

Abstract

This paper makes a novel linkage between the multiple-computations theorem in philosophy of mind and Landauer’s principle in physics. The multiple-computations theorem implies that certain physical systems implement simultaneously more than one computation. Landauer’s principle implies that the physical implementation of “logically irreversible” functions is accompanied by minimal entropy increase. We show that the multiple-computations theorem is incompatible with, or at least challenges, the universal validity of Landauer’s principle. To this end we provide accounts of both ideas in terms of low-level fundamental concepts in statistical mechanics, thus providing a deeper understanding of these ideas than their standard formulations given in the high-level terms of thermodynamics and cognitive science. Since Landauer’s principle is pivotal in the attempts to derive the universal validity of the second law of thermodynamics in statistical mechanics, our result entails that the multiple-computations theorem has crucial implications with respect to the second law. Finally, our analysis contributes to the understanding of notions, such as “logical irreversibility,” “entropy increase,” “implementing a computation,” in terms of fundamental physics, and to resolving open questions in the literature of both fields, such as: what could it possibly mean that a certain physical process implements a certain computation.

2019年7月25日 星期四 下午4:00 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. (RSS 2.0)
De Haro, Sebastian (2019) Towards a Theory of Emergence for the Physical Sciences. [Preprint]

Authors: Bernard S. Kay (York)

Editorial Note with a mathematical and historical introduction to a 1932 paper by Erwin Schr\”odinger on the generalization of the Dirac equation to a curved spacetime — to appear in the ‘Golden Oldie’ section of the Journal of General Relativity and Gravitation alongside an English translation of that paper. The Schr\”odinger paper is of interest as the first place that the well-known formula $g^{\mu\nu}\nabla_\mu\nabla_\nu + m^2 + \frac{R}{4}$ was obtained for the ‘square’ of the Dirac operator in curved spacetime. This formula is known by a number of names and we explain why we favour the name ‘Schr\”odinger-Lichnerowicz formula’. We also aim to explain how the modern notion of `spin connection’ emerged from a debate in the physics journals in the period 1929-1933. We discuss the key contributions of Weyl, Fock and Cartan and explain how and why they were partly in conflict with the approaches of Schr\”odinger and several other authors. We reference and comment on some previous historical accounts of this topic.

2019年7月24日 星期三 下午6:38 | ScienceDirect Publication: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsScienceDirect RSShttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-science-part-b-studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-modern-physicsRSS for NodeWed, 24 Jul 2019 09:46:42 GMTCopyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedImprints of the underlying structure of physical theoriesPublication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsAuthor(s): Jorge ManeroAbstractIn the context of scientific realism, this paper intends to provide a formal and accurate description of the structural-based ontology posited by classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and special relativity, which is preserved across the empirical domains of these theories and explain their successful predictions. Along the lines of ontic structural realism, such a description is undertaken by

Publication date: Available online 12 July 2019

Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics

Author(s): Jorge Manero

Abstract

In the context of scientific realism, this paper intends to provide a formal and accurate description of the structural-based ontology posited by classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and special relativity, which is preserved across the empirical domains of these theories and explain their successful predictions. Along the lines of ontic structural realism, such a description is undertaken by a particular ontological commitment: the belief in the existence of a freestanding actual structure, approximately represented by a subgroup of the Inhomogeneous Symplectic Group (up to group homomorphisms), and their corresponding state-space representations. Accordingly, the hierarchy and the complexity of this group-theoretical structure is represented by appropriate philosophical tools, namely, by the language of partial structures. Upon this approach, the lack of knowledge of some relations that hold at the boundary between mathematics and physics, and the presence of surplus structure within the structural edifice are explored and represented. The conclusive issue appeals to an interesting example of a surplus but fruitful structure, where superposition of states with different mass are suggested to be actual relativistic remnants within non-relativistic quantum mechanics, as opposed to the standard interpretation in which they are empirically meaningless.

2019年7月24日 星期三 下午6:38 | ScienceDirect Publication: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsScienceDirect RSShttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-science-part-b-studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-modern-physicsRSS for NodeWed, 24 Jul 2019 09:46:42 GMTCopyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedImprints of the underlying structure of physical theoriesPublication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsAuthor(s): Jorge ManeroAbstractIn the context of scientific realism, this paper intends to provide a formal and accurate description of the structural-based ontology posited by classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and special relativity, which is preserved across the empirical domains of these theories and explain their successful predictions. Along the lines of ontic structural realism, such a description is undertaken by

Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019

Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics

Author(s): Oliver Davis Johns

Abstract

Arguing from his “hole” thought experiment, Einstein became convinced that, in cases in which the energy-momentum-tensor source vanishes in a spacetime hole, a solution to his general relativistic field equation cannot be uniquely determined by that source. After reviewing the definition of active diffeomorphisms, this paper uses them to outline a mathematical proof of Einstein’s result. The relativistic field equation is shown to have multiple solutions, just as Einstein thought. But these multiple solutions can be distinguished by the different physical meaning that each metric solution attaches to the local coordinates used to write it. Thus the hole argument, while formally correct, does not prohibit the subsequent rejection of spurious solutions and the selection of a physically unique metric. This conclusion is illustrated using the Schwarzschild metric. It is suggested that the Einstein hole argument therefore cannot be used to argue against substantivalism.

2019年7月24日 星期三 下午6:38 | ScienceDirect Publication: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsScienceDirect RSShttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-science-part-b-studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-modern-physicsRSS for NodeWed, 24 Jul 2019 09:46:42 GMTCopyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedImprints of the underlying structure of physical theoriesPublication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsAuthor(s): Jorge ManeroAbstractIn the context of scientific realism, this paper intends to provide a formal and accurate description of the structural-based ontology posited by classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and special relativity, which is preserved across the empirical domains of these theories and explain their successful predictions. Along the lines of ontic structural realism, such a description is undertaken by

Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019

Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics

Author(s): Charles T. Sebens

Abstract

There are a number of reasons to think that the electron cannot truly be spinning. Given how small the electron is generally taken to be, it would have to rotate superluminally to have the right angular momentum and magnetic moment. Also, the electron’s gyromagnetic ratio is twice the value one would expect for an ordinary classical rotating charged body. These obstacles can be overcome by examining the flow of mass and charge in the Dirac field (interpreted as giving the classical state of the electron). Superluminal velocities are avoided because the electron’s mass and charge are spread over sufficiently large distances that neither the velocity of mass flow nor the velocity of charge flow need to exceed the speed of light. The electron’s gyromagnetic ratio is twice the expected value because its charge rotates twice as fast as its mass.

2019年7月24日 星期三 下午6:36 | quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Jan SperlingSyamsundar DeThomas NitscheJohannes TiedauSonja BarkhofenBenjamin BrechtChristine Silberhorn

A textbook interpretation of quantum physics is that quantum objects can be described in a particle or a wave picture, depending on the operations and measurements performed. Beyond this widely held believe, we demonstrate in this contribution that neither the wave nor the particle description is sufficient to predict the outcomes of quantum-optical experiments. To show this, we derive correlation-based criteria that have to be satisfied when either particles or waves are fed into our interferometer. Using squeezed light, it is then confirmed that measured correlations are incompatible with either picture. Thus, within one single experiment, it is proven that neither a wave nor a particle model explains the observed phenomena. Moreover, we formulate a relation of wave and particle representations to two incompatible notions of quantum coherence, a recently discovered resource for quantum information processing.For such an information-theoretic interpretation of our method, we certify the nonclassicality of coherent states – the quantum counterpart to classical waves – in the particle picture, complementing the known fact that photon states are nonclassical in the typically applied wave picture.

2019年7月24日 星期三 下午6:36 | quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Jeffrey Bub

About ten years ago, Itamar Pitowsky and I wrote a paper, ‘Two dogmas about quantum mechanics,’ in which we outlined an information-theoretic interpretation of quantum mechanics as an alternative to the Everett interpretation. Here I revisit the paper and, following Frauchiger and Renner, I show that the Everett interpretation leads to modal contradictions in ‘Wigner’s-Friend’-type scenarios that involve ‘encapsulated’ measurements, where a super-observer (which could be a quantum automaton), with unrestricted ability to measure any arbitrary observable of a complex quantum system, measures the memory of an observer system (also possibly a quantum automaton) after that system measures the spin of a qubit. In this sense, the Everett interpretation is inconsistent.

2019年7月24日 星期三 下午4:29 | gr-qc updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Luca BuoninfanteGaetano LambiaseAntonio Stabile

We propose a high precision satellite experiment to further test Einstein’s General Relativity and constrain extended theories of gravity. We consider the frequency shift of a photon radially exchanged between two observers, one located on Earth and the other on a satellite in circular orbit in the equatorial plane. In General Relativity there exists a peculiar satellite-distance at which the static contribution to the frequency shift vanishes since the effects induced by pure gravity and special relativity compensate, while it can be non-zero in extended theories of gravity, like in models with screening mechanisms. As an experimental device placed on the satellite we choose a system of hydrogen atoms which can exhibit the $1$s spin-flip transition from the singlet (unaligned proton-electron spins) to the triplet (aligned proton-electron spins) state induced by the absorption of photons at $21.1$cm ($1420$MHz). The observation of an excited state would indicate that the frequency of the emitted and absorbed photon remains unchanged according to General Relativity predictions. On the contrary, a non-zero frequency shift, as predicted in extended theories of gravity, would prevent the spin-flip transition and the hydrogen atoms from jumping into the excited state. Such a detection would signify a smoking-gun signature of new physics beyond special and general relativity.

Authors: Andrea MaselliPaolo PaniVitor CardosoTiziano AbdelsalhinLeonardo GualtieriValeria Ferrari

Supermassive binaries detectable by the future space gravitational-wave interferometer LISA might allow to distinguish black holes from ultracompact horizonless objects, even when the latter are motivated by quantum-gravity considerations. We show that a measurement of very small tidal Love numbers at the level of $10\%$ accuracy (as achievable with “golden binaries”) may also allow to distinguish between different models of these exotic compact objects, even when taking into account an intrinsic uncertainty in the object radius putatively due to quantum mechanics. We argue that there is no conceptual obstacle in performing these measurements, the main challenge remains the detectability of small tidal effects and an accurate waveform modelling. Our analysis uses only coordinate-independent quantities related to the proper radial distance and the total mass of the object.

2019年7月24日 星期三 下午4:29 | gr-qc updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Geoffrey Compère

The aim of this short review is to give an overview to non-specialists of recent arguments from fundamental physics in favor and disfavor of quantum corrections to black hole horizons. I will mainly discuss the black hole information paradox, its possible resolutions and shortly address its relevance or irrelevance to astronomy.

2019年7月24日 星期三 下午4:29 | gr-qc updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Ning BaoMudassir MoosaIbrahim Shehzad

The relative entropy is a measure of the distinguishability of two quantum states. A great deal of progress has been made in the study of the relative entropy between an excited state and the vacuum state of a conformal field theory (CFT) reduced to a spherical region. For example, when the excited state is a small perturbation of the vacuum state, the relative entropy is known to have a universal expression for \textit{all} CFT’s \cite{Faulk-GR-entanglement}. Specifically, the perturbative relative entropy can be written as the symplectic flux of a certain scalar field in an \textit{auxiliary} AdS-Rindler spacetime \cite{Faulk-GR-entanglement}. Moreover, if the CFT has a semi-classical holographic dual, the relative entropy is known to be related to conserved charges in the bulk dual spacetime \cite{lashkari2016gravitational}. In this paper, we introduce a one-parameter generalization of the relative entropy which we call \textit{refined} R\’enyi relative entropy. We study this quantity in CFT’s and find a one-parameter generalization of the aforementioned known results about the relative entropy. We also discuss a new family of positive energy theorems in asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes that arises from the holographic dual of the refined R\’enyi relative entropy.

2019年7月24日 星期三 下午2:41 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. (RSS 2.0)
Pitts, James (2019) What Are Observables in Hamiltonian Einstein-Maxwell Theory? [Preprint]
2019年7月24日 星期三 下午2:40 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. (RSS 2.0)
Pitts, J. Brian (2017) Progress and Gravity: Overcoming Divisions between General Relativity and Particle Physics and between Physics and HPS. The Philosophy of Cosmology, Ch. 13. pp. 263-282.
2019年7月24日 星期三 下午2:37 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. (RSS 2.0)
Chasova, Valeriya (2019) Direct and indirect empirical statuses compared to the Newtonian and Leibnizian interpretations of theoretical symmetries in physics. In: UNSPECIFIED.
2019年7月24日 星期三 下午2:37 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. (RSS 2.0)
McCutcheon, Randall (2019) An Eternal Con. [Preprint]
2019年7月23日 星期二 下午4:18 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. (RSS 2.0)
Schindler, Samuel and Saint-Germier, Pierre (2019) Are thought experiments “disturbing”? The case of armchair physics. [Preprint]
2019年7月22日 星期一 下午6:00 | Simon Milz, M. S. Kim, Felix A. Pollock, and Kavan Modi | PRL: General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Author(s): Simon Milz, M. S. Kim, Felix A. Pollock, and Kavan Modi

In the classical domain, it is well known that divisibility does not imply that a stochastic process is Markovian. However, for quantum processes, divisibility is often considered to be synonymous with Markovianity. We show that completely positive divisible quantum processes can still involve non-M…

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 040401] Published Mon Jul 22, 2019

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