Weekly Papers on Quantum Foundations (28)

上午10:12 | Byoung S. Ham | quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

Photonic de Broglie waves (PBWs) via two-mode entangled photon pair interactions on a beam splitter show a pure quantum feature which cannot be obtained by classical means1-4. Although PBWs have been intensively studied for quantum metrology5-13 and quantum sensing14-25 over the last several decades, their implementation has been limited due to difficulties of high-order NOON state generation4. Recently a coherence version of PBWs, the so-called coherence de Broglie waves (CBWs), has been proposed in a pure classical regime of an asymmetrically coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI)26. Unlike PBWs, the quantumness of CBWs originates from the cascaded quantum superposition of the coupled MZI. Here, the first CBWs observation is presented in a pure classical regime and discussed for its potential applications in coherence quantum metrology to overcome conventional PBWs limited by higher-order entangled photons. To understand the quantum superposition-based nonclassical features in CBWs, various violation tests are also performed, where asymmetrical phase coupling is the key parameter for CBWs.

上午10:12 | Tsubasa Ichikawa | quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

Logical inference leads to one of the major interpretations of probability theory called logical interpretation, in which the probability is seen as a measure of the plausibility of a logical statement under incomplete information. In this paper, assuming that our usual inference procedure makes sense for every set of logical propositions represented in terms of commuting projectors on a given Hilbert space, we extend the logical interpretation to quantum mechanics and derive the Born rule. Our result implies that, from the epistemological viewpoints, we can regard quantum mechanics as a natural extension of the classical probability.

上午10:12 | Yaodong Li, Matthew P. A. Fisher | quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

We study stabilizer quantum error-correcting codes (QECC) generated under hybrid dynamics of local Clifford unitaries and local Pauli measurements in one dimension. Building upon 1) a general formula relating the error-susceptibility of a subregion to its entanglement properties, and 2) a previously established mapping between entanglement entropies and domain wall free energies of an underlying spin model, we propose a statistical mechanical description of the QECC in terms of “entanglement domain walls”. Free energies of such domain walls generically feature a leading volume law term coming from its “surface energy”, and a sub-volume law correction coming from thermodynamic entropies of its transverse fluctuations. These are most easily accounted for by capillary-wave theory of liquid-gas interfaces, which we use as an illustrative tool. We show that the information-theoretic decoupling criterion corresponds to a geometric decoupling of domain walls, which further leads to the identification of the “contiguous code distance” of the QECC as the crossover length scale at which the energy and entropy of the domain wall are comparable. The contiguous code distance thus diverges with the system size as the subleading entropic term of the free energy, protecting a finite code rate against local undetectable errors. We support these correspondences with numerical evidence, where we find capillary-wave theory describes many qualitative features of the QECC; we also discuss when and why it fails to do so.

Authors: Badis Ydri

Quantum mechanics in the Wigner-von Neumann interpretation is presented. This is characterized by 1) a quantum dualism between matter and consciousness unified within an informational neutral monism, 2) a quantum perspectivism which is extended to a complementarity between the Copenhagen interpretation and the many-worlds formalism, 3) a psychophysical causal closure akin to Leibniz parallelism and 4) a quantum solipsism, i.e. a reality in which classical states are only potentially-existing until a conscious observation is made.

Authors: Lijing ShaoNorbert WexShuang-Yong Zhou

In Einstein’s general relativity, gravity is mediated by a massless metric field. The extension of general relativity to consistently include a mass for the graviton has profound implications for gravitation and cosmology. Salient features of various massive gravity theories can be captured by Galileon models, the simplest of which is the cubic Galileon. The presence of the Galileon field leads to additional gravitational radiation in binary pulsars where the Vainshtein mechanism is less suppressed than its fifth-force counterpart, which deserves a detailed confrontation with observations. We prudently choose fourteen well-timed binary pulsars, and from their intrinsic orbital decay rates we put a new bound on the graviton mass, $m_g \lesssim 2 \times 10^{-28}\,{\rm eV}/c^2$ at the 95% confidence level, assuming a flat prior on $\ln m_g$. It is equivalent to a bound on the graviton Compton wavelength $\lambda_g \gtrsim 7 \times 10^{21}\,{\rm m}$. Furthermore, we extensively simulate times of arrival for pulsars in orbit around stellar-mass black holes and the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center, and investigate their prospects in probing the cubic Galileon theory in the near future.

Authors: Astrid EichhornAlessia PlataniaMarc Schiffer

We explore the interplay of matter with quantum gravity with a preferred frame to highlight that the matter sector cannot be protected from the symmetry-breaking effects in the gravitational sector. Focusing on Abelian gauge fields, we show that quantum gravitational radiative corrections induce Lorentz-invariance-violating couplings for the Abelian gauge field. In particular, we discuss how such a mechanism could result in the possibility to translate observational constraints on Lorentz violation in the matter sector into strong constraints on the Lorentz-violating gravitational couplings.

Authors: Iosif BenaDaniel R. Mayerson

We develop a formalism to compute the gravitational multipole moments and ratios of moments of non-extremal and of supersymmetric black holes in four dimensions, as well as of horizonless microstate geometries of the latter. For supersymmetric and for Kerr black holes many of these multipole moments vanish, and their dimensionless ratios are ill-defined. We present two methods to compute these dimensionless ratios, which for certain supersymmetric black holes agree spectacularly. We also compute these dimensionless ratios for the Kerr solution. Our methods allow us to calculate an infinite number of hitherto unknown parameters of Kerr black holes, giving us a new window into their physics.

2020年7月10日 星期五 下午6:00 | Iliya Esin, Alessandro Romito, and Yuval Gefen | PRL: General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Author(s): Iliya Esin, Alessandro Romito, and Yuval Gefen

A new measurement protocol is defined for a Mach-Zehnder geometry with a finite signal when quantum interference is concerned, but vanishes for classical waves or particles.


[Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 020405] Published Fri Jul 10, 2020

2020年7月10日 星期五 上午8:00 | Latest Results for Foundations of Physics

Abstract

An analysis is presented of the possible existence of the second anomalous dipole moment of Dirac’s particle next to the one associated with the angular momentum. It includes a discussion why, in spite of his own derivation, Dirac has doubted about its relevancy. It is shown why since then it has been overlooked and why it has vanished from leading textbooks. A critical survey is given on the reasons of its reject, including the failure of attempts to measure and the perceived violations of time reversal symmetry and charge–parity symmetry. It is emphasized that the anomalous electric dipole moment of the pointlike electron (AEDM) is fundamentally different from the quantum field type electric dipole moment of an electron (eEDM) as defined in the standard model of particle physics. The analysis has resulted into the identification of a third type Dirac particle, next to the electron type and the Majorana particle. It is shown that, unlike as in the case of the electron type, its second anomalous dipole moment is real valued and is therefore subject to polarization in a scalar potential field. Examples are given that it may have a possible impact in the nuclear domain and in the gravitational domain.

2020年7月10日 星期五 上午8:00 | Latest Results for Foundations of Physics

Abstract

We show that in the presence of the torsion tensor \(S^k_{ij}\) , the quantum commutation relation for the four-momentum, traced over spinor indices, is given by \([p_i,p_j]=2i\hbar S^k_{ij}p_k\) . In the Einstein–Cartan theory of gravity, in which torsion is coupled to spin of fermions, this relation in a coordinate frame reduces to a commutation relation of noncommutative momentum space, \([p_i,p_j]=i\epsilon _{ijk}Up^3 p_k\) , where U is a constant on the order of the squared inverse of the Planck mass. We propose that this relation replaces the integration in the momentum space in Feynman diagrams with the summation over the discrete momentum eigenvalues. We derive a prescription for this summation that agrees with convergent integrals: \(\int \frac{d^4p}{(p^2+\varDelta )^s}\rightarrow 4\pi U^{s-2}\sum _{l=1}^\infty \int _0^{\pi /2} d\phi \frac{\sin ^4\phi \,n^{s-3}}{[\sin \phi +U\varDelta n]^s}\) , where \(n=\sqrt{l(l+1)}\) and \(\varDelta \) does not depend on p. We show that this prescription regularizes ultraviolet-divergent integrals in loop diagrams. We extend this prescription to tensor integrals. We derive a finite, gauge-invariant vacuum polarization tensor and a finite running coupling. Including loops from all charged fermions, we find a finite value for the bare electric charge of an electron: \(\approx -1.22\,e\) . This torsional regularization may therefore provide a realistic, physical mechanism for eliminating infinities in quantum field theory and making renormalization finite.

2020年7月9日 星期四 下午2:44 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
de Waal, Elske and ten Hagen, Sjang L. (2020) The Concept of Fact in German Physics around 1900: A Comparison between Mach and Einstein. Physics in Perspective, 22 (2). pp. 55-80. ISSN 1422-6944
2020年7月9日 星期四 下午2:42 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Lean, Oliver M and Rivelli, Luca and Pence, Charles H. (2020) What Can Philosophers Really Learn from Science Journals? [Preprint]
2020年7月9日 星期四 上午8:00 | Latest Results for Synthese

Abstract

Mesoscale modeling is often considered merely as a practical strategy used when information on lower-scale details is lacking, or when there is a need to make models cognitively or computationally tractable. Without dismissing the importance of practical constraints for modeling choices, we argue that mesoscale models should not just be considered as abbreviations or placeholders for more “complete” models. Because many systems exhibit different behaviors at various spatial and temporal scales, bottom-up approaches are almost always doomed to fail. Mesoscale models capture aspects of multi-scale systems that cannot be parameterized by simple averaging of lower-scale details. To understand the behavior of multi-scale systems, it is essential to identify mesoscale parameters that “code for” lower-scale details in a way that relate phenomena intermediate between microscopic and macroscopic features. We illustrate this point using examples of modeling of multi-scale systems in materials science (steel) and biology (bone), where identification of material parameters such as stiffness or strain is a central step. The examples illustrate important aspects of a so-called “middle-out” modeling strategy. Rather than attempting to model the system bottom-up, one starts at intermediate (mesoscopic) scales where systems exhibit behaviors distinct from those at the atomic and continuum scales. One then seeks to upscale and downscale to gain a more complete understanding of the multi-scale system. The cases highlight how parameterization of lower-scale details not only enables tractable modeling but is also central to understanding functional and organizational features of multi-scale systems.

2020年7月9日 星期四 上午2:08 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Mizrahi, Moti (2020) Proof, Explanation, and Justification in Mathematical Practice. [Preprint]
2020年7月8日 星期三 下午3:02 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Gomes, Henrique and Riello, Aldo (2020) Large gauge transformations, gauge invariance, and the QCD theta-term. [Preprint]
2020年7月8日 星期三 下午2:53 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Weaver, Christopher (2020) In Praise of Clausius Entropy: Reassessing the Foundations of Boltzmannian Statistical Mechanics. [Preprint]
2020年7月8日 星期三 下午2:51 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Roberts, Bryan W. and Butterfield, Jeremy (2020) Time-energy uncertainty does not create particles. [Preprint]
2020年7月8日 星期三 下午2:49 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Wu, Tung-Ying (2020) Structural Decision Theory. In: UNSPECIFIED.
2020年7月8日 星期三 上午8:00 | Latest Results for Foundations of Physics

Abstract

The uncertainty on measurements, given by the Heisenberg principle, is a quantum concept usually not taken into account in General Relativity. From a cosmological point of view, several authors wonder how such a principle can be reconciled with the Big Bang singularity, but, generally, not whether it may affect the reliability of cosmological measurements. In this letter, we express the Compton mass as a function of the cosmological redshift. The cosmological application of the indetermination principle unveils the differences of the Hubble-Lemaître constant value, \(H_0\) , as measured from the Cepheids estimates and from the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation constraints. In conclusion, the \(H_0\) tension could be related to the effect of indetermination derived in comparing a kinematic with a dynamic measurement.

2020年7月8日 星期三 上午8:00 | Latest Results for Foundations of Physics

Abstract

Measurements are shown to be processes designed to return figures: they are effective. This effectivity allows for a formalization as Turing machines, which can be described employing computation theory. Inspired in the halting problem we draw some limitations for measurement procedures: procedures that verify if a quantity is measured cannot work in every case.

2020年7月8日 星期三 上午8:00 | Latest Results for Synthese
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2020年7月7日 星期二 下午2:16 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Stergiou, Chrysovalantis (2020) Empirical Underdetermination for Physical Theories in C* Algebraic Setting: Comments to an Arageorgis’s Argument. [Preprint]
2020年7月7日 星期二 上午8:00 | Teunis M. Klapwijk | Nature Physics – Issue – nature.com science feeds

Nature Physics, Published online: 07 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-0905-x

The breakdown of superconductivity is described as a reduction in the amplitude of the order parameter or a breakdown in phase coherence of Cooper pairs. This Review Article highlights recent results that show both mechanisms may be at play simultaneously.

2020年7月7日 星期二 上午2:03 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Avon, Mauro (2020) A different approach to logic: absolute logic. [Preprint]
2020年7月5日 星期日 下午6:05 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Halvorson, Hans (2020) John Bell on Subject and Object. [Preprint]
2020年7月4日 星期六 下午3:08 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Miller, Michael (2020) Infrared Cancellation and Measurement. In: UNSPECIFIED.
2020年7月4日 星期六 下午3:07 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Murgueitio Ramírez, Sebastián and Teh, Nicholas (2020) Abandoning Galileo’s Ship: The quest for non-relational empirical significance. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.

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