Weekly Papers on Quantum Foundations (30)

Authors: Philipp A HoehnAugustin Vanrietvelde

Every clock is a physical system and thereby ultimately quantum. A naturally arising question is how to describe time evolution relative to quantum clocks and, specifically, how the dynamics relative to different quantum clocks are related. This is a pressing issue in view of the multiple choice problem of time in quantum gravity, which posits that there is no distinguished choice of internal clock in generic general relativistic systems and that different choices lead to inequivalent quantum theories. Exploiting a recent approach to switching quantum reference systems (arXiv:1809.00556, arXiv:1809:05093), we exhibit a systematic method for switching between different clock choices in the quantum theory. We illustrate it by means of the parametrized particle, which, like gravity, features a Hamiltonian constraint. We explicitly switch between the quantum evolution relative to the non-relativistic time variable and that relative to the particle’s position, which requires carefully regularizing the zero-modes in the so-called time-of-arrival observable. While this toy model is simple, our approach is general and directly amenable to quantum cosmology. It proceeds by systematically linking the reduced quantum theories relative to different clock choices via the clock-choice-neutral Dirac quantized theory, in analogy to coordinate changes on a manifold. This method suggests a new perspective on the multiple choice problem, indicating that it is rather a multiple choice feature of a complete relational quantum theory, taken as the conjunction of Dirac quantized and quantum deparametrized theories. Precisely this conjunction permits one to consistently switch between different temporal reference systems which is a prerequisite for a quantum notion of general covariance. Finally, we show that quantum uncertainties lead to discontinuity in the relational dynamics when switching clocks.

Authors: Hong Zhe ChenZachary FisherJuan HernandezRobert C. MyersShan-Ming Ruan

Recently, new holographic models of black hole evaporation have given fresh insights into the information paradox [arXiv:1905.08255arXiv:1905.08762arXiv:1908.10996]. In these models, the black hole evaporates into an auxiliary bath space after a quantum quench, wherein the holographic theory and the bath are joined. One particularly exciting development is the appearance of “ER=EPR”-like wormholes in the (doubly) holographic model of [arXiv:1908.10996]. At late times, the entanglement wedge of the bath includes the interior of the black hole. In this paper, we employ both numerical and analytic methods to study how information about the black hole interior is encoded in the Hawking radiation. In particular, we systematically excise intervals from the bath from the system and study the corresponding Page transition. Repeating this process ad infinitum, we end up with a fractal structure on which the black hole interior is encoded, implementing the uberholography protocol of [arXiv:1612.00017].

Authors: M. J. Duff

In a September 1976 PRL Eguchi and Freund considered two topological invariants: the Pontryagin number $P \sim \int d^4x \sqrt{g}R^* R$ and the Euler number $\chi \sim \int d^4x \sqrt{g}R^* R^*$ and posed the question: to what anomalies do they contribute? They found that $P$ appears in the integrated divergence of the axial fermion number current, thus providing a novel topological interpretation of the anomaly found by Kimura in 1969 and Delbourgo and Salam in 1972. However, they found no analogous role for $\chi$. This provoked my interest and, drawing on my April 1976 paper with Deser and Isham on gravitational Weyl anomalies, I was able to show that for Conformal Field Theories the trace of the stress tensor depends on just two constants: \[ g^{\mu\nu}\langle T_{\mu\nu}\rangle=\frac{1}{(4\pi)^2}(cF-aG)\] where $F$ is the square of the Weyl tensor and $\int d^4x\sqrt{g} G/(4\pi)^2$ is the Euler number. For free CFTs with $N_s$massless fields of spin $s$ \[ 720c=6N_0 + 18N_{1/2} + 72 N_1~~~~ 720a=2N_0 + 11N_{1/2} + 124N_1 \]

上午9:32 | Indrajit Sen, Antony Valentini | quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

This is the first of two papers which attempt to comprehensively analyse superdeterministic hidden-variables models of Bell correlations. We first give an overview of superdeterminism and discuss various criticisms of it raised in the literature. We argue that the most common criticism, the violation of `free-will’, is incorrect. We take up Bell’s intuitive criticism that these models are `conspiratorial’. To develop this further, we introduce nonequilibrium extensions of superdeterministic models. We show that the measurement statistics of these extended models depend on the physical system used to determine the measurement settings. This suggests a fine-tuning in order to eliminate this dependence from experimental observation. We also study the signalling properties of these extended models. We show that although they generally violate the formal no-signalling constraints, this violation cannot be equated to an actual signal. We therefore suggest that the so-called no-signalling constraints be more appropriately named the marginal-independence constraints. We discuss the mechanism by which marginal-independence is violated in superdeterministic models. Lastly, we consider a hypothetical scenario where two experimenters use the apparent-signalling of a superdeterministic model to communicate with each other. This scenario suggests another conspiratorial feature peculiar to superdeterminism. These suggestions are quantitatively developed in the second paper.

上午9:32 | physics.hist-ph updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Wayne C. Myrvold

There is a long tradition of thinking of thermodynamics, not as a theory of fundamental physics (or even a candidate theory of fundamental physics), but as a theory of how manipulations of a physical system may be used to obtain desired effects, such as mechanical work. On this view, the basic concepts of thermodynamics, heat and work, and with them, the concept of entropy, are relative to a class of envisaged manipulations. This view has been dismissed by many philosophers of physics, in my opinion too hastily. This paper is a sketch and defense of a science of manipulations and their effects on physical systems. This is, I claim, the best way to make sense of thermodynamics as it is found in textbooks and as it is practiced. I call this science thermo-dynamics (with hyphen), or $\Theta \Delta^{cs}$, for short, to highlight that it may be different from the science of thermodynamics, as the reader conceives it. Even if one is not convinced that it is the best way to make sense of thermodynamics as it is practiced, it should be non-controversial that $\Theta \Delta^{cs}$ is a legitimate science. An upshot of the discussion is a clarification of the roles of the Gibbs and von Neumann entropies. Given the definition of statistical thermo-dynamic entropy, it can be proven that, under the assumption of availability of thermodynamically reversible processes, these functions are the unique (up to an additive constant) functions that represent thermo-dynamic entropy. Light is also shed on the use of coarse-grained entropies.}

Authors: Wayne C. Myrvold

Landauer’s principle is, roughly, the principle that there is an entropic cost associated with implementation of logically irreversible operations. Though widely accepted in the literature on the thermodynamics of computation, it has been the subject of considerable dispute in the philosophical literature. Both the cogency of proofs of the principle and its relevance, should it be true, have been questioned. In particular, it has been argued that microscale fluctuations entail dissipation that always greatly exceeds the Landauer bound. In this article Landauer’s principle is treated within statistical mechanics, and a proof is given that neither relies on neglect of fluctuations nor assumes the availability of thermodynamically reversible processes. In addition, it is argued that microscale fluctuations are no obstacle to approximating thermodynamic reversibility as closely as one would like

Authors: Indrajit SenAntony Valentini

We prove that superdeterministic models of quantum mechanics are conspiratorial in a mathematically well-defined sense, by further development of the ideas presented in a previous article $\mathcal{A}$. We consider a Bell scenario where, in each run and at each wing, the experimenter chooses one of $N$ devices to determine the local measurement setting. We prove, without assuming any features of quantum statistics, that superdeterministic models of this scenario must have a finely-tuned distribution of hidden variables. Specifically, fine-tuning is required so that the measurement statistics depend on the measurement settings but not on the details of how the settings are chosen. We quantify this as the overhead fine-tuning $F$ of the model, and show that $F > 0$ (corresponding to `fine-tuned’) for any $N >1$. The notion of fine-tuning assumes that arbitrary (`nonequilibrium’) hidden-variables distributions are possible in principle. We also show how to quantify superdeterministic conspiracy without using nonequilibrium. This second approach is based on the fact that superdeterministic correlations can mimic actual signalling. We argue that an analogous situation occurs in equilibrium for a superdeterministic model of our scenario. We quantify the conspiracy by showing that an appropriately defined formal entropy for superdeterministic models of our scenario spontaneously decreases with time. In both approaches, superdeterministic models become arbitrarily conspiratorial as $N \to \infty$. We thus quantitatively confirm Bell’s intuition that superdeterministic models are conspiratorial.

上午9:32 | ScienceDirect Publication: Physics ReportsScienceDirect RSShttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/physics-reportsRSS for NodeTue, 23 Jul 2019 10:02:48 GMTCopyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reservedRapid solidification as non-ergodic phenomenonPublication date: 20 July 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 818Author(s): P.K. Galenko, D. JouAbstractRapid solidification is a relevant physical phenomenon in material sciences, whose theoretical analysis requires going beyond the limits of local equilibrium statistical physics and thermodynamics and, in particular, taking account of ergodicity breaking and of generalized formulation of thermodynamics. The ergodicity breaking is related to the time symmetry breaking and to the presence of some kinds of fluxes and gradient flows making that an average of microscopic variables along time is different than an average over some chosen statistical ensemble. In fast processes, this is due, for instance, to the fact that the system has no time enough to explore the who

Publication date: Available online 21 July 2020

Source: Physics Reports

Author(s): F. Benatti, R. Floreanini, F. Franchini, U. Marzolino

上午9:32 | ScienceDirect Publication: Physics ReportsScienceDirect RSShttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/physics-reportsRSS for NodeTue, 23 Jul 2019 10:02:48 GMTCopyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reservedRapid solidification as non-ergodic phenomenonPublication date: 20 July 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 818Author(s): P.K. Galenko, D. JouAbstractRapid solidification is a relevant physical phenomenon in material sciences, whose theoretical analysis requires going beyond the limits of local equilibrium statistical physics and thermodynamics and, in particular, taking account of ergodicity breaking and of generalized formulation of thermodynamics. The ergodicity breaking is related to the time symmetry breaking and to the presence of some kinds of fluxes and gradient flows making that an average of microscopic variables along time is different than an average over some chosen statistical ensemble. In fast processes, this is due, for instance, to the fact that the system has no time enough to explore the who

Publication date: Available online 21 July 2020

Source: Physics Reports

Author(s): Gonzalo J. Olmo, Diego Rubiera-Garcia, Aneta Wojnar

上午9:32 | ScienceDirect Publication: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsScienceDirect RSShttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-science-part-b-studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-modern-physicsRSS for NodeWed, 24 Jul 2019 09:46:42 GMTCopyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedImprints of the underlying structure of physical theoriesPublication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsAuthor(s): Jorge ManeroAbstractIn the context of scientific realism, this paper intends to provide a formal and accurate description of the structural-based ontology posited by classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and special relativity, which is preserved across the empirical domains of these theories and explain their successful predictions. Along the lines of ontic structural realism, such a description is undertaken by

Publication date: Available online 21 July 2020

Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics

Author(s): Charlotte Werndl, Roman Frigg

2020年7月24日 星期五 下午3:34 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Callender, Craig (2020) Quantum Mechanics: Keeping It Real? [Preprint]
2020年7月24日 星期五 下午3:10 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Icefield, William (2020) Uncomputable UV-complete theory and hidden variables interpretations beyond Bohmian particle mechanics. [Preprint]
2020年7月23日 星期四 下午8:05 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Rodin, Andrei (2020) Axiomatic Architecture of Scientific Theories. UNSPECIFIED.
2020年7月23日 星期四 下午2:50 | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.
Myrvold, Wayne C. (2020) The Science of ΘΔcs. [Preprint]
2020年7月22日 星期三 下午6:00 | Chiara Marletto and Vlatko Vedral | PRL: General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Author(s): Chiara Marletto and Vlatko Vedral

In the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect, a superposed charge acquires a detectable phase by enclosing an infinite solenoid, in a region where the solenoid’s electric and magnetic fields are zero. Its generation seems therefore explainable only by the local action of gauge-dependent potentials, not of gauge…

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 040401] Published Wed Jul 22, 2020

2020年7月21日 星期二 上午8:00 | Latest Results for Synthese

Abstract

Einstein claimed that the fundamental dynamical insight of special relativity was the equivalence of mass and energy. I disagree. Not only are mass and energy not equivalent (whatever exactly that means) but talk of such equivalence obscures the real dynamical insight of special relativity, which concerns the nature of 4-forces and interactions more generally. In this paper I present and defend a new ontology of special relativistic particle dynamics that makes this insight perspicuous and I explain how alleged cases of mass–energy conversion can be accommodated within that ontology.

2020年7月20日 星期一 上午8:00 | Irfan Siddiqi | Nature Physics – Issue – nature.com science feeds

Nature Physics, Published online: 20 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-0939-0

An adaptive heterodyne technique with a Josephson parametric amplifier detector allows a high-precision single-shot canonical phase measurement on a one-photon wave packet, complementing near-ideal measurements of photon number or field amplitude.

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