2019 International Workshop: Beyond Bell’s theorem

Closing the superdeterminism loophole in Bell’s theorem

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    Shan Gao
    Shan Gao
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    http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/16203/

    It is well known that there is a freedom-of-choice loophole or superdeterminism loophole in Bell’s theorem. Since no experiment can completely rule out the possibility of superdeterminism, it seems that a local hidden variable theory consistent with relativity can never be excluded. In this paper, we present a new analysis of local hidden variable theories. The key is to notice that a local hidden variable theory assumes the universality of the Schroedinger equation, and it permits that a measurement can be in principle undone in the sense that the wave function of the composite system after the measurement can be restored to the initial state. We propose a variant of the EPR-Bohm experiment with reset operactions that can undo measurements. We find that according to quantum mechanics, when Alice’s measurement is undone after she obtained her result, the correlation between the results of Alice’s and Bob’s measurements depends on the time order of these measurements, which may be spacelike separated. Since a local hidden variable theory consistent with relativity requires that relativistically non-invariant relations such as the time order of spacelike separated events have no physical significance, this result means that a local hidden variable theory cannot explain the correlation and reproduce all predictions of quantum mechanics even when assuming superdeterminism. This closes the major superdeterminism loophole in Bell’s theorem.

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